Posts Tagged ‘value added’

A “Reformer” in Connecticut’s Superior Court

October 10, 2016 Leave a comment

Last month, Elizabeth Harris wrote an article in the NYTimes on a far reaching decision rendered by Connecticut Superior Court Judge Thomas Moukawsher, who issued a 200+ page ruling on that state’s funding formula. Mr. Harris’ article focussed on the primary issue that faced the judge, the fairness of funding, and noted in passing some of the other issues the judge touched on in his lengthy decision.

Last weekend, Wendy Lecker, a Hearst Connecticut Media Group columnist and senior attorney at the Education Law Center, wrote an op ed piece decrying some of the remedies embedded in the judge’s decision, remedies that are based on the popular misconception that exit examinations will ensure uniform success for all learners and VAM will ensure quality teaching. When groups filing lawsuits seeking equitable funding get a decision that affirms their assertion that the existing funding mechanisms are inherently inequitable, they don’t expect to receive decisions that call for practices that are destructive to the students who are raised in poverty or to the teachers who are willing to devote their careers to working with those students. But, as Ms. Lecker notes, that is exactly what Mr. Moukawsher did in his rambling decision.

On the issue of exit examinations, where the judge cited Massachusetts’ successes, Ms. Lecker writes:

The judge decided that because Connecticut does not have “rational” and “verifiable” high school standards, meaning standards measured by a high school exit exam, Connecticut diplomas for students in poor districts are “patronizing and illusory.” He concluded that the cure for this problem is standardized, “objective” exams that students must pass to graduate…

(H)ad the judge examined the evidence, he would have also learned that the actual major factor in Massachusetts’ improvement was the very measure he refused to order Connecticut to implement: school finance reform that dramatically increased the amount of school funding statewide. No fewer than three studies have shown that increasing school funding significantly improved student achievement in Massachusetts. Recent major studies confirmed those findings nationwide, demonstrating that school finance reform has the most profound positive impact among poor students.

When it came to teacher evaluations, which fall well outside the purview of a ruling on funding equity, the judge advocated VAM as a method. In response to that decision Ms. Lecker writes:

Courts that have actually examined the evidence on systems that rate teachers on student test scores have rejected these systems. Last year, a court in New Mexico issued a temporary injunction barring the use of test scores in that state’s teacher evaluation system. And in April, a court in New York ruled that a teacher’s rating based on her students’ “growth” scores — the foundation of New York’s teacher evaluation system — was “arbitrary and capricious;” the opposite of “rational” and “verifiable.”

Yet despite the reams of evidence debunking the use of student growth scores in evaluating teachers, and despite these two court rulings, Judge Moukawsher insisted that rating teachers on student “growth” scores would satisfy his demand that Connecticut’s system for hiring, firing, evaluating and compensating teachers be “rational” and “verifiable.” His ruling defies the evidence and logic.

A month ago when I wrote a post on the Connecticut ruling I surmised that, based on what’s happened in other states where the courts fond the funding inequitable, nothing would happen as a result the judges decision. I was wrong. In this case, as a result of the judge’s overreach, both sides on this issue are appealing the decision to a higher court… and as the case goes forward I share Ms. Lecker’s hopes:

One can only hope that that our highest court will steer this case back on course, away from these ill-advised educational policy rulings and toward a proper finding that the state is failing to provide our poorest schools with adequate funding and is consequently failing to safeguard the educational rights of our most vulnerable children.

Stay tuned… it will be another school year at best before anything happens… and likely another generation before change occurs in Connecticut… if it happens at all.


NY Court Slams “Arbitrary and Capricious” VAM…

May 11, 2016 Leave a comment

In a victory for common sense over spreadsheets, Justice Roger D. McDonough of State Supreme Court in Albany vacated the value-added calculations that were the basis of NY teacher Sheri Lederman’s unfavorable rating “…in part because of the difficulty in measuring growth for students who already perform above grade level on state tests.” The NYTimes article explaining the court decision described the basis for Ms. Lederman’s “unfavorable” rating as follows:

For the 2012-13 school year, Sheri G. Lederman, a longtime teacher in the high-performing Great Neck public school district, on Long Island, received what was known as a growth score of 14 points out of a possible 20; the score was meant to calculate student progress over time. Her students scored substantially higher than the state average on annual standardized tests in English and math, and her score put her in the “effective” range.

The next year, her students scored a bit better on the math test than they had the year before, and slightly lower on the English exam. But her growth score plummeted to one out of 20, or “ineffective.”

This phenomenon results when a standardized test based on a bell curve is used since it is mathematically impossible for high performing students to “grow” on such a test due to the lack of “head room”. If one teacher’s class gets 48 out of 50 correct on a test in the baseline year and another teacher’s class gets 25 out of fifty correct that same year, in the subsequent year it is impossible for the high performing students to get 3 or more questions correct and, thus, impossible for them to show as much “growth” as the low performing students. Despite this inherent flaw, NYS, goaded on by Race-to-the-Top, decided to use “growth” as the primary metric for determining teacher performance. After all, test scores are an “objective” and “quantifiable” means of measuring the effectiveness of teachers. Fortunately for Ms. Lederman, the judge who heard her case— unlike the Board of Regents who adopted the evaluation system— understood basic statistics ad saw the flaw in the methodology.

While the judge limited his decision to only Ms. Lederman, as Carol Burris notes in Valerie Strauss’ Washington Post blog the decision was based on the evidence presented by academics who pointed out flaws in the system, evidence that could undermine the basis for all evaluations based on VAM. Here’s hoping other teachers in other States will follow Ms. Lederman’s lead and challenge their unfavorable ratings based on VAM and help drive a stake through the “testocracy” that drives public education today.

Public Education Works IF It Is Supported

February 24, 2016 Leave a comment

A Common Dreams article by Paul Buchheit caught my eye based on its title, “Why We Need Democratic Socialism to Fix Our Public Schools” and the title of this post is the heading of one section that jumped out at me. That section is reprinted below:

The National Bureau of Economic Research found that a 10 percent increase in per-pupil spending leads to higher earnings and less poverty for children from poor families. The Shanker Institute concurs, concluding from several studies that “On average, aggregate measures of per-pupil spending are positively associated with improved or higher student outcomes.” 

Yet public education is NOT being supported. The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities(CBPP) recently stated: “Most states provide less support per student for elementary and secondary schools—in some cases, much less—than before the Great Recession…Worse, some states are still cutting eight years after the recession took hold.”

Most damaging may be the cutbacks to pre-school programs, which have been shown by numerous studies to provide the social and emotional foundations for lifelong skills, and for higher earnings, especially for disadvantaged children. In 2013 Head Start was hit with the worst cutbacks in its history.

Earlier in the article Buchheit described the dismal reality of public education funding and support now: the  OECD report describing the lack of numeric and reading skills among 16-19 year olds; the failure of the market-based “reform” movement– particularly reforms that relied too heavily on technology; and the failed charter school movement. After citing the data in the section above, Buchheit concludes that we should emulate Finland if we are serious about improving public education. He concludes with this:

Even free-market economist Milton Friedman once stepped out of character and agreed: “We have always been proud, and with good reason, of the widespread availability of schooling to all and the role that public schooling has played in…enabling people from different cultural and religious backgrounds to live together in harmony.”

Children aren’t products to be bought and sold. The profit motive should end at the front door of the public school.


VAM Nailed in NYS as 250 Educators Receive Erroneous Ratings

January 27, 2016 Leave a comment

An article by Elizabeth Harris earlier this week drove another nail into the Value Added coffin. The article uses lots of obfuscatory verbiage to paper over the blunt headline, “Over 200 Educators in New York Receive Erroneous Scores Linked to Student Scores”. Using language from a letter sent by the NYSED, Harris writes that the errors in calculations effected “less than 1 percent of the more than 40,000 educators who received such feedback” and to further diminish the impact quoted Dennis Tompkins, a spokesman for the Education Department, who noted that “…that while about 250 principals and teachers received incorrect scores, the error was large enough only to change the growth ratings for 30 educators, all of whom were principals.” The NYSED insinuation seems to be that just because “only” 30 principals got bad scores the system is just fine…. but their actions speak louder than their words:

Nonetheless, (Tompkins) said scores for the more than 40,000 educators would be recalculated at the contractor’s expense; the higher score would be the one that counts.

Sorry, reformers, the recalculation will not restore credibility to VAM….

Naked Capitalism Reports on the Negative Consequences of Philanthrocapitalism

January 25, 2016 Leave a comment

My favorite blogger, Yves Smith, wrote a post today describing how the oligarchs use their power to indoctrinate the public and advance their own agendas. Using a New York Review of Books article and a blog post by Inside Philanthropy blogger Mike Massey as a springboard for her post, Smith offers several examples of the “cognitive capture initiatives” launched by the philanthro-capitalists. Because she omitted one of the hugest “cognitive capture initiatives” I offered the following comment to her post:

No public enterprise has been “rescued” by seemingly well-intentioned philanthropists more than public education. The philanthropists’ have successfully convinced the public that public schools would be better off if they were subjected to market forces, run like businesses who are answerable to shareholders, and measured by standardized achievement tests that assume the one-size-fits-all industrial model of schooling established in the 1920s is inviolable. Philanthropists have underwritten studies and pilot programs that use the cold analytics of data analysis combined with test scores to impose “value added” measures to reward good teachers. And, as we’ve just witnessed for 7 years, this “run schools like a business” mental model has captured the imaginations of both parties. When you child cannot experience art, music or PE because they need to boost their test scores, send your thank you notes to the philanthropists.


Bank Street President, a Former True Believer in Test, Changes His Tune

January 15, 2016 Leave a comment

On Wednesday of this week the NYTimes ran an op ed essay by Shael Polakow-Suransky, currently the President of Bank Street School who formerly held the position of  chief accountability officer of the New York City Department of Education— the second highest ranking position in the NYC Education Department— under the Bloomberg administration.

I was astonished and pleased to see that Mr. Polakow-Suransky has been disabused of the notion that test scores should play a role in determining teacher effectiveness because in his earlier life as second in command in NYC he sung a different song. In an article profiling him in 2010, the Times wrote:

…if he has his way, there will be better tests, and more of them.

“Until we start seeing assessments that ask kids to write research papers, ask them to solve unfamiliar problems, ask them to defend their ideas, ask them to engage with both fiction and nonfiction texts; until those kinds of assessments are our state assessments, all we’re measuring are basic skills,” Mr. Polakow-Suransky said in an interview.

In his evolution from an idealist teacher to a data-mining administrator, Mr. Polakow-Suransky, 38, personified the seismic changes in education that were beginning to take shape just as he was drawing up his first lesson plans. He came of age as the school system was moving to replace large high schools with small ones, and making testing both a means and an end. He jumped aboard both movements, mentored along much of the way by an educator who, next month, will be working under him.

But Mr. Polakow-Suransky has changed his tune! Now he decries the NYS evaluation system because it “…relies on tests designed for one task (measuring student learning) and uses them for another (measuring each teacher’s impact). Good data is important but we have to use it for what it can actually tell us, not for what we wish it could tell us.

Now… if he can just persuade the Governor that his evaluation system is relying on flawed data he might fully atone for his advocacy. After all, Diane Ravitch once worked for Lamar Alexander and promoted many of the bad ideas promoted by the business wing of he Republican party before she saw the flaws in the ideas of “running schools like a business”. It is that concept that led to the testing regimen that strangles the creativity of teachers and makes schools more like factories. Maybe Mr. Polakow-Suransky can join her efforts to eliminate the reliance on the seemingly exact standardized test scores as the primary means of evaluating teachers.

Regents About Face Evidence of VAM’s Worthlessness

December 15, 2015 Leave a comment

Kate Taylor of the NYTimes reported today that the Board of Regents voted to decouple test scores from teacher evaluations, the ultimate repudiation of Duncan/Cuomo’s efforts to lay the blame for poor performance on tests on the doorsteps of teachers. As the Times reported without judgment,

The vote completed a sharp reversal of the state’s policy earlier this year, when the Legislature voted to increase the weight of test scores in evaluations.

The Regents were following a recommendation made last week by a task force created by Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo. It called for revising the state’s standards on what students should know and eliminating state tests when evaluating teachers, at least through the 2018-19 school year.

The task force’s report, which came with Mr. Cuomo’s implicit approval, represented an about face by the governor, a Democrat, who in January had called for test scores to account for half of some teachers’ evaluations.

At that time, he declared that the tests needed to be used for evaluations since students were “failing” them at record highs while 96% of the teachers received solid evaluations. At the time I wrote a post indicating that the 96% figure seemed right to me based on my 29 years experience as an administrator and the notion of using tests to evaluate teacher, especially tests whose cut scores could be manipulated for political purposes, seemed preposterous.

While it is heartening to see a 180 degree turnabout by the governor and the Regents, it is disheartening to see that the Times made no mention of the fact that statisticians have challenged the use of value added measures and gave no indication that that fact played a role in the Regent’s determination to stop using the tests to “measure” teacher effectiveness. Until State Boards and the mainstream media make the public aware of the invalidity of VAM advocates will continue promoting it as the best means of measuring teacher performance…. because it is inexpensive, objective, and seemingly precise.